Microscopic objects that are comprised of two or three dimensions between 1–100 nm in size. Nanoparticles may display different physical properties (such as conductivity, solubility, etc.) than their larger bulk material counterparts.
Nanoparticles have some beneficial medical applications, such as coating tumours to enhance MRI images or as a catalyst to break down volatile organic compounds in the air. On the other hand, ambient nanoparticles may cause unexpected reactions in biological organisms and have been linked with respiratory and cardiovascular disease in humans (Plummer et al. 2011; Schulte and Trout 2011).

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