Convective heat transfer

The net rate of heat transfer between a human and the ambient environment. Free convection develops due to thermal gradients between air temperature and skin temperature; hence, convective heat loss occurs when air temperature is less than skin temperature, and convective heat gain occurs when air temperature is greater than that of the skin. Forced convection can also occur due to fans, pumps, or body movement and is usually expressed in terms of unit area, i.e. as a heat flux  (IUPS Thermal Commission 2001).

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