Air temperature distribution in urban areas

Similar to the UHI effect (urban versus rural), temperature is not distributed evenly within a single urban area. Air temperature is affected by such elements as surface cover (pavement vs grass, for example), building height, and anthropogenic heat. In general, rivers and parks are cooler than built-up areas during the day. Air temperature differences within the urban environment reach a peak during night-time (Petralli et al. 2011). Urban parks are often cooler t an their surroundings (Spronken-Smith and Oke 1999) and the magnitude and timing of the park cool island (PCI) effect varies with park type and the extent to which the park differs from its surroundings (Spronken-Smith and Oke 1998).

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