Adaptation

Adaptation in human systems is defined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2012) as “The process of adjustment to actual or expected climate and its effects, in order to moderate harm or exploit beneficial opportunities”. In natural systems, the IPCC (2012) defines adaptation as the process of adjustment to actual climate and its effects, and notes that human intervention may facilitate adjustment to the expected climate. In temperature-mortality modelling studies, adaptation includes physiological acclimatisation to warmer/colder temperatures, as well as a range of behavioural adaptations (e.g. dressing appropriately during hot/cold weather) and technological adaptations [e.g. air-conditioning, the introduction of heat health warning systems (HHWS), and the adaptation of infrastructure such as the construction of green roofs to reduce urban heat island (UHI) magnitude]. Most temperature-related mortality studies refer only to physiological acclimatisation and there is much debate as to how adaptation should be modelled (Gosling et al. 2009)

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